Vaudeville Wars

VAUDEVILLE WARS

How the Keith-Albee and Orpheum Circuits Controlled the Big Time and Its Performers
written by Arthur Frank Wertheim, published by Palgrave Macmillan

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Notes: Part One Origins



Notes for other pages of Vaudeville Wars can be found by clicking on the appropriate link in the Table of Contents.

Page numbers below refer to page numbers in the printed book. When a paragraph in the book does not contain a note it is identified by placing quotation marks around key words in the first sentence. In cases where there is a note in the published version, references have been added after the cited note, often followed by the word "see."

Part One Origins

1. From Farm Boy to Museum Owner


1. BSH, January 14, 1883, 3, 5, February 11, 1883, 7.

2. D. Hamilton Hurd, History of Hillsborough County, New Hampshire (Philadelphia: J. W. Lewis, 1885), 421; E. F. Albee, "B. F. Keith---An Appreciation," B. F. Keith's Theatre News, May 22, 1922, 4-5, copy HC-LC. See George Waldo Browne, History of Hillsborough, New Hampshire, 1735-1921 (Manchester, NH: John B. Clarke, 1922), vol. 1, History and Description, 317; vol. 2, Biography and Genealogy, 351-52; Samuel Lankton Gerould, Genealogy of the Family of Gamaliel Gerould (Bristol, NH: Enterprise Power Press, 1885), 5-18.

3. Union Signal, June 11, 1896, 4; Albert F. McLean, Jr., "Genesis of Vaudeville: Two Letters from B. F. Keith," Theatre Survey 1 (1960): 86. These published letters written on June 8 and 11, 1912, are Keith's only autobiographical statement. The typescript can be found in the B. F. Keith file, HTC-MH. See Gerould, Genealogy, 17-18, 41; Samuel Lankton Gerould, A Brief History of the Congregational Church in Goffstown, N.H.: Being Part of a Sermon Preached by Samuel L. Gerould, Pastor, July 9, 1876 (Bristol, NH: R. W. Musgrove, 1881).

4. George M. Cohan, Twenty Years on Broadway, and the Years It Took to Get There: The True Story of a Trouper's Life from the Cradle to the `Closed Shop' (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1924), 9; Douglas Gilbert, American Vaudeville: Its Life and Times (New York: Whittlesly House. 1940; repr., Dover Publications, 1963), 237. See John McCabe, George M. Cohan: The Man Who Owned Broadway (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1973), 9.

5. Albee, "B. F. Keith---An Appreciation," 4-6; McLean, "Genesis of Vaudeville," 86. See NYS, April 22. 1922, 9.

6 McLean, "Genesis of Vaudeville," 87; Marine Journal, February 1, 1896, scrapbook #26, KAC-IaU. See NYDM, November 6, 1912, 13.

7. NYS, April 22, 1922, 9.

pp. 6-7 "The circus was the ideal place"
Gilbert, American Vaudeville, 202-4.

8. McLean, "Genesis of Vaudeville," 88, 89.

9. Ibid., 89.

pp. 7-8 "In the late 1870s"
Alvin F. Harlow, Old Bowery Days: Chronicles of a Famous Street (New York and London: D. Appleton, 1931), 313-86.

p. 9 "The Bowery exposed Keith"
James Dabney McCabe [Edward Winslow Martin], Secrets of the Great City: A Work Descriptive of the Virtues and the Vices, the Mysteries, Miseries and Crimes of New York City (Philadelphia: Jones Brothers, 1868), 50; Matthew Hale Smith, Sunshine and Shadow in New York (Hartford, CT: J. B. Burr, 1869), 215; Harlow, Old Bowery Days, 465; John J. Jennings, Theatrical and Circus Life; or, Secrets of the Stage, Greenroom and Sawdust Arena (San Francisco: Bancroft, 1882), 276.

p. 9 "While walking in the Bowery"
On the concert saloon see Harlow, Old Bowery Days, 374; McCabe, Secrets of the Great City, 44-45; Brooks McNamara, The New York Concert Saloon: The Devil's Own Nights (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002; Lloyd Morris, Incredible New York: High Life and Low Life of the Last Hundred Years (New York: Random House, 1951), 48-50; Parker Zellers, "The Cradle of Variety: the Concert Saloon," Educational Theatre Journal 20 (December 1968): 578-85.

p. 9 "Flirtatious `waiter girls'"
"The New York Concert Saloons," New York Evening Post, January 2, 1862, clipping, vaudeville-pre 1891 file, HTC-MH.

p. 9 "At one end of the hall"
Ibid.; McCabe, Secrets of the Great City, 312.

pp. 9-10 "Keith liked to boast"
Richard Butsch, Making of American Audiences: From Stage to Television, 1750-1990 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 66-80; Richard Butsch, "Bowery B'hoys and Matinee Ladies: The Re-gendering of Nineteenth-Century American Theater Audiences," American Quarterly 46 (September 1994): 374-405; Bruce A. McConachie, "Pacifying American Theatrical Audiences, 1820-1900"; Kathy Peiss, "Commercial Leisure and the `Woman Question'" in For Fun and Profit: The Transformation of Leisure into Consumption, ed. Richard Butsch (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990), 59-60. 108-12.

p. 10 "During the mid-1870s"
Wilfred Funk, Word Origins: An Exploration and History of Words and Language (New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1950; repr., Wings Books, 1998), 302-3; Gilbert, American Vaudeville, 4, 178; Joe Laurie, Jr., Vaudeville: From the Honky-tonks to the Palace (New York: Holt, 1953), 10; Bernard Sobel, A Pictorial History of Vaudeville (New York: Citadel Press, 1961), 17-24; Don B. Wilmeth, The Language of American Popular Entertainment: A Glossary of Argot, Slang, and Terminology (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1981), 287; WST, January 24, 1874, 5.
10. WST, January 24, 1874, 567, January 31, 1874, 590, March 7, 1874, 91, November 21, 1874, 360, 365.
11. P. T. Barnum, Struggles and Triumphs or, Forty Years' Recollections (1869; reprint, New York: Arno Press, 1970), 120, 134. See Robert Bogdan, Freak Show: Presenting Human Oddities for Amusement and Profit (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988), 29-35; Andrea Stulman Dennett, Weird and Wonderful: The Dime Museum in America (New York: New York University Press, 1997); Lloyd Haberly, "The American Museum from Baker to Barnum," New York Historical Society Quarterly 43 (July 1959): 273-87; Bruce A. McConachie, Melodramatic Formations: American Theatre and Society, 1820-1870 (Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1992), 161-97; Brooks McNamara, "`A Congress of Wonders': The Rise and Fall of the Dime Museum," Emerson Society Quarterly 20 (3rd quarter 1974): 216-32; Robert C. Toll, On With the Show: The First Century of Show Business in America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1976), 3-47.

12. A. H. Saxon, P. T. Barnum: The Legend and the Man (New York: Columbia University Press, 1989), 109; New York Tribune, December 2, 1876, 4. See Bogdan, Freak Show, 35-37, 41, 71, 213-14, 247; Kenneth T. Jackson, ed., Encyclopedia of New York City, (New Haven and New York: Yale University Press and the New-York Historical Society, 1995), 131; Michael Bennett Leavitt, Fifty Years in Theatrical Management, (New York: Broadway Publishing, 1912), 10-11.

13. McLean, "Genesis of Vaudeville," 90; NYDM, November 26, 1913, 4. See Gerould, Genealogy, 18.

p. 12 "Boston , he believed"
Robert C. Allen, Horrible Prettiness (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991), 180-82; Oscar Handlin, Boston's Immigrants: A Study in Acculturation (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1979), 262; McConachie, Melodramatic Formations, 162-64, 168-76, 196-97; Raymond A. Mohl, The New City: Urban America in the Industrial Age, 1860-1920 (Arlington Heights, IL: Harlan Davidson, 1985), 15, 20, 25-26.

14. NYM, June 12, 1880, 12. See Robert C. Allen, "B. F. Keith and the Origins of American Vaudeville," Theatre Survey 21 (November 1980), 106, 110-11; Perry R. Duis, The Saloon: Public Drinking in Chicago and Boston, 1880-1920 (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1983), 237.

15. BSH, February 11, 1883, 7, February 18, 1883, 12, February 25, 1883.

16. Ibid., March 4, 1883, 9, April 1, 1883, 7; McLean, "Genesis of Vaudeville," 90.

p. 14 "Encouraged by his success"
BSH, April 1, 1883, 7; Bogdan, Freak Show, 94-95, 100-01; Wilmeth, Language of American Popular Entertainment, 18.

17. BSH, May 20, 1883, 10, 11, June 3, 1883, 10, 15; McLean, "Genesis of Vaudeville," 90, 91.

18. BSH, March 25, 1883, 7, January 27, 1884, 11.

19. Ibid., June 9, 1884, 11. On Batcheller see Roger Brett, Temples of Illusion: The Golden Age of Theaters in an American City (Providence, RI: Brett Theatrical, 1976), 89-90; Leavitt, Fifty Years in Theatrical Management, 179; Gil Robinson, Old Wagon Show Days (Cincinnati: Brockwell, 1925), 206-8; NYC, December 6, 1913, 13; NYDM, December 17, 1913, 14, ; NYT, November 20, 1913, 11; VO 1:November 28, 1913.

p. 15 "With Batcheller's investment"
BSH, June 1, 1884, 11, June 15, 1884, 11; BH, June 17, 1884, 4.

20. Keith & Batcheller's Mammoth Museum Programme, September 27, 1884, RBC-BPL. See BSH, July 27, 1884, November 2, 1884, 11. November 9, 1884, 11.

21. McLean, "Genesis of Vaudeville," 94; Variety, February 28, 1919, 30. See Armond Fields and L. Marc Fields, From the Bowery to Broadway: Lew Fields and the Roots of American Popular Theater (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993), 42, 54-58; Felix Isman, Weber and Fields: Their Tribulations, Triumphs and their Associates (New York: Boni and Liveright, 1924), 75-79, 81-82.

p. 17 "As business boomed"
BSH, March 8, 1885, 11, April 19, 1885, 11.

22. Al Emmett Fostelle Papers, holograph autobiographical sketch, file 1.25, HRHRC-TxU.

23. BSH, February 11, 1883, 7, May 13, 1883, 11, June 22, 1884, 11; Keith & Batcheller's Mammoth Museum Programme.

24. BSH, July 4, 1886, 10; McLean, "Genesis of Vaudeville," 91; NYDM, December 24, 1898, 95.

p. 18 "Keith boasted"
Chicago Tribune advertisement, March 4, 1883, 11; NYDM, December 7, 1895, 2.

25. NYDM, December 24, 1898, 95; McLean, "Genesis of Vaudeville," 86. On Hodgdon see NYC, August 11, 1920, 26; Variety, December 20, 1912, 24, 107, April 14, 1922, 11.

26. McLean, "Genesis of Vaudeville," 86.

27. BSH, July 12, 1885, 11.

28. Ibid., July 12, 1885, 10, August 23, 1885, 10, August 30, 1885, 10.

2. Keith's Right-Hand Man

1. NYDM, August 7, 1897, 17. On Albee's ancestors see John Howard Ahlin, Maine Rubicon: Downeast Settlers during the America Revolution (Calais, ME: Calais Advertiser Press, 1966), 11-29, 79, 184, 186, 190.

2. "Albee Success Shows Profit of Clean Stage," Christian Science Monitor, June 19, 1928, scrapbook #93, KAC-IaU.

3. Billboard, December 24, 1921, 9; "Albee, Outstanding Individual of Vaudeville's Centennial," Providence Sunday Tribune, February 6, 1923, scrapbook #90, KAC-IaU. See B. F. Keith Theatre News, September 19, 1921, 6, copy HC-LC; "Life Story of E. F. Albee," Boston Sunday Post, Feature Section, January 16, 1927, copy, Edward F. Albee file, HTC-MH; NYDN, July 21, 1906, 10; NYT, March 23, 1930, sec. 10, 4.

4. NYC, December 28, 1923, 9.

5. Ibid.

6. Ibid.; NYMT, May 4, 1919, sec. 6, 2.

7. NYT, March 23, 1930, sec. 10, 4; NYC, December 28, 1923, 9; Variety, January 3, 1924, 9. See also Variety, October 31, 1919, 29.

8. Felix Isman, Weber and Fields, 79-80. See Wilmeth, Language of American Popular Entertainment, 15-16, 251.

9. NYC, August 1, 1920, 26; VN, August 13, 1920, 1.

10. Gilbert, American Vaudeville, 207.

11. B. F. Keith's Theatre News, June 26, 1922, 4, copy HC-LC; Pawtucket Times, September 24, 1903, scrapbook #34, KAC-IaU. An early illustration of Keith appeared on the front page of the NYC, December 1, 1888, and an illustration and story about Albee was published in the NYC, November 5, 1892.

12. NYC, August 11, 1920, 6; B. F. Keith's Theatre News, September 12, 1921, 5, copy, HC-LC; "B. F. Keith's Right-Hand Man," NYDM, August 7, 1897, 16; Boston Post, January 30, 1927, n.p.

13. VN, August 13, 1920, 1; Billboard, December 24, 1921, 9; "The Growth of Vaudeville in the United States," Providence Sunday Tribune, November 30, 1913, scrapbook #49, KAC-IaU.

14. "A Tribute to Benjamin Franklin Keith," Ceremonies Attending the Laying of the Cornerstone, Keith Memorial Theatre, Boston, Mass.," copy NNMuS; VN, August 13, 1920, 2.

15. BSH, March 21, 1886, 10; Walter Prichard Eaton, "The Wizards of Vaudeville," McClure's Magazine 55 (no. 7): 45.

16. BSH, March 28, 1886,11.

17. B. F. Keith's Theatre News, September 12, 1921, 6, copy, HC-LC; NYC, August 11, 1920, 6; VN, August 13, 1920, 2; BSH, December 27, 1885, 10.

18. BSH, August 22, 1886, 11, August 29, 1886, 11. On the Bijou see Bright Lights in Boston: A Theatre Milestone (Boston Edison Company, December 11, 1892), copy, THS; Donald C. King, "From Museum to Multi-Cinema: An Outline History of the Theatre in Boston," Marquee 6 (Third Quarter, 1974): 8.

19. BH, August 31, 1886, 8.

20. BSH, July 17, 1887, 10.

21. Ibid., July 17, 1887, 10; McLean, "Genesis of Vaudeville," 92.

22. BSH, July 17, 1887, 10, August 7, 1887, 10. See also BSH, July 31, 1887, 11.

23. McLean, "Genesis of Vaudeville," 92.

24. Variety, October 31, 1919, 28; Fields and Fields, From the Bowery to Broadway, 83.

25. Cohan, Twenty Years on Broadway, 16-17.

26. Gilbert, American Vaudeville, 237.

27. "Albee Success Shows Profit of Profit of Clean Stage," Christian Science Monitor, June 19. 1928, scrapbook "93, KAC-IaU.

28. BSH, April 29, 1888, 11, October 16, 1887, 1, January 15, 1888, 10.

29. NYC, December 20, 1922., 71. See Keith News, March 16, 1908, scrapbook #42, KAC-IaU.

30. McLean, "Genesis of Vaudeville," 94. See John S. Gilkeson, Jr., Middle-class Providence, 1820-1940 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1986), 99, 215-61; Mohl, New City, 14, 20.

p. 31 "Keith leased the Old Dime Museum"
Keith News, December 9, 1912, scrapbook #48; Providence News, March 22, 1887, scrapbook #27, KAC-IaU; Brett, Temple of Illusion, 57, 80-87; George O. Willard, History of the Providence Stage, 1762-1891 (Providence: Rhode Island News Company, 1891), 276-77.

31. NYMT, May 4, 1919, sec. 6, 2; Brett, Temple of Illusion, 57.

p. 32 "After a year"
Willard, History of the Providence Stage, 248-49, 252, 257, 259-60, 276-77.

32. McLean, "Genesis of Vaudeville," 93-94.

p. 32 "Keith and Albee next sought"
NYC, June 1, 1889, 191; Irvin R. Glazer, Philadelphia Theaters: A Pictorial Architectural History (Philadelphia and New York: The Athenaeum and Dover Publications, 1994), ix-xxii, 82; Philadelphia Theatres, A-Z: A Comprehensive Descriptive Record of 813 Theatres Constructed Since 1724 (New York and Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1986), 8-23, 68-69; Mohl, New City, 15.

33. VN, August 13, 1920, 2. See J. B. McElfatrick file F-165, Irving R. Glazer Collection, Athenaeum, Philadelphia; Byrne David Blackwood, "The Theatres of J. B. McElfatrick and Sons, Architects, 1855-1922" (PhD diss. University of Kansas, 1966); Robert A. M. Stern, Gregory Gilmartin, and John Montague Massengale, New York 1900: Metropolitan Architecture and Urbanism, 1890-1915 (New York: Rizzoli, 1983), 203, 206-8.

p. 33 "Called `The Drawing Room Theatre of Philadelphia"
NYC, November 9,1889, 580, November 16, 1889, 600; NYMT, March 27, 1910, 2. "Dust Over the Old Bijou Covers Lusty Chapter of Song-and-Dance History, Philadelphia Sunday Bulletin, July 16, 1967; "Famed Bijou Theater Is Demolished," Philadelphia Inquirer, May 26, 1967, clippings and playbills, Bijou File, PP.

p. 33 "As in Boston and Providence"
NYC, December 20, 1890, 651; Providence Evening Bulletin, September 2, 1896, scrapbook #27, KAC-IaU; Boston Herald, January 20, 1927, B. F. Keith clipping file, NN-L-BRTC.

34. "Albee Success Shows Profit of Clean Stage," Christian Science Monitor, June 19, 1928, scrapbook #93, KAC-IaU; Allen, Much Ado About Me (Boston: Little, Brown, 1956), 246.

35. NYC, November 5, 1892.

3. San Francisco's Orpheum


p. 35 "The year Keith opened his museum"
NYDM, May 21, 1898, 16.

p. 35 "After working in New York"
William Issel and Robert W. Cherny, San Francisco, 1865-1932: Politics, Power, and Urban Development (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986), 23-24, 54, 56-79.

1. Gelett Burgess, Bayside Bohemia: Fin De SiPcle San Francisco & Its Little Magazines, introduction James D. Hart (San Francisco: Book Club of California, 1954), 13. See also Frank Norris, "Cosmopolitan San Francisco," Wave, December 24, 1897, reprinted in Frank Norris of `The Wave': Stories & Sketches from the San Francisco Weekly, 1893 to 1897 (San Francisco: Westgate Press, 1931, republished 1972), 135.

2. Burgess, Bayside Bohemia, 38; Lois Foster Rodecape, "Tom Maguire, Napoleon of the Stage," California Historical Society Quarterly 20 (1941):289-314; 21 (1942):39-74, 141-82, 239-75. See CGAT, 298, 410-12; OCAT, 455-56.

3. Michael Bennett Leavitt, Fifty Years in Theatrical Management (New York: Broadway Publishing, 1912), 248. See also Misha Berson, The San Francisco Stage: From the Golden Spike to Great Earthquake, 1869-1906 (San Francisco: San Francisco Performing Arts Library and Museum, 1992), 9-11, 35-39, 55-61, 63-69, 79-89, 92-93; John Dizikes, Opera in America: A Cultural History (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1993), 109-19, 281-83; Edmund Gagey, The San Francisco Stage: A History (New York: Columbia University Press, 1950), 167-68; George R. MacMinn, The Theater of the Golden Era in California (Caldwell, ID: Caxton Printers, Ltd., 1941), 38; Robert C. Toll, Blacking Up: The Minstrel Show in Nineteenth-Century America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1974), 31, 149-52, 209-10; "Michael B. Leavitt," San Francisco Theatre Research, 2 (series 1):109-45; University Press, 1974), 31, 149-52, 209-10; CGAT, 58, 65, 276 OCAT, 421; NYC, March 1, 1902, 5; NYM, October 5, 1882, 3; SFC, December 13, 1882, 2; December 17, 1882, 7. December 24, 1882, 2, 7.

4. "Good or Bad," SFE, November 18, 1890, binder 1890, CSf-PALM, 5; Berson, San Francisco Stage, 76. See Richard Erdoes, Saloons of the Old West (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1979), 172; Armond Fields, Eddie Foy: A Biography of the Early Popular Stage Comedian (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1999), 42-44; Gagey, San Francisco Stage, 13, 31, 71; Leavitt, Fifty Years in Theatrical Management, 188, 248, 473; Mike Gilmore, "San Francisco Vaudeville Theatres," Vaudeville Times 4 (issue 3):2-6; Billboard, December 15, 1923, 12; NYDM, January 1, 1910, 23; NYM, July 1, 1882, 6; SFC, December 12, 1880, 7, January 2, 1881, 7; Variety, December 26, 1919, 22.

p. 37 "Living in San Francisco"
Berson, San Francisco Stage, 55-61; Richard Butsch, The Making of American Audiences, 1750-1990: From Stage to Television (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 100-1; Dizikes, Opera in America, 282; Brooks McNamara, New York Concert Saloon (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 202), 96-104; Carl Wittke, We Who Built America: The Saga of the Immigrant, rev. ed. (Cleveland, OH: The Press of Western Reserve University, 1964), 207-15.

5. Al H. Hallett, "The Old `Barbary Coast,'" Variety, December 26, 1919, 22.

6. Town Talk, August 1, 1914, clipping, vol. 8, OPNR-CU-B; SFC, December 25, 1881, 7; see also October 9, 1881, 2, December 11, 1881, 7; Issel and Cherny, San Francisco, 1865-1932, 56.

7. SFC, August 12, 1883, 7, October 15, 1883, 4, May 18, 1884,

8. Ibid., March 23, 1884, 2. See November 11, 1883, 7, March 9, 1884, 7, May 18, 1884, 7, September 28, 1884, 7; Berson, San Francisco Stage, 102; Billboard, December 15, 1923, 12.

pp. 39-40 "With the Vienna Gardens a success"
SFC, June 1, 1884, 7, June 29, 1884, 7, July 6, 1884, 7, July 13, 1884, 7, July 20, 1884, 7, August 1, 1884, 4, November 2, 1884, 7.

9. "Famous Playhouses," vol. 17, part 3, History of the San Francisco Theatre, compiled by the Workers of the Writers' Program of the Work Projects Administration in Northern California (1942), 117, see also 112-16, CSf-PALM; SFC, November 16, 1884, 7, April 26, 1885, 7, June 14, 1885, 7.

p. 40 "Hoping his patrons"
SFC, September 13, 1885, 7, October 14, 1885, 7.

10. SFC, October 11, 1885, 12. See September 27, 1885, 7, November 15, 1885, 7, November 18, 1885, 2, January 17, 1886, 7, May 2, 1886, 9, August 8, 1886, 11.

11. Ibid., October 31, 1886, July 1, 1887, 6. See SFC, September 19, 1886, 9; "Famous Playhouses," 122, CSf-PALM.

p. 41 "At the end of 1886"
SFC, December 12, 1886, 12, January 16, 1887, 7; Issel and Cherny, San Francisco, 111.

12. SFC, January 2, 1887, 7, April 8, 1887, 12, May 1, 1887, 12, July 1, 1887, 6. See February 27, 1887, 12, April 8, 1887, 12.

13. Ibid., June 26, 1887, 6. See Orpheum Anniversary Souvenir Booklet, June 30, 1887-June 30, 1897, copy, CSf-PALM.

14. SFC, July 1, 1887, 3. See Evelyn Wells, Champagne Days of San Francisco (New York and London: D. Appleton-Century Co., 1941), 40-44.

15. SFC, July 1, 1887, 6; NYM, July 30, 1887, 4. See SFC, July 10, 1887, 12; Berson, San Francisco Stage, 94; Leavitt, Fifty Years in Theatrical Management, 252-53.

16. SFC, October 23, 1887, 3, December 25, 1887, 3. See July 1, 1887, 3, 6, July 3, 1887, 12.

17. SFE, May 11, 1913, clipping, vol. 6, OPNR-CU-B.

18. "The Old Orpheum, Hail and Farewell," News Letter and Wasp, May 13, 1938, Box 1, Theater Building San Francisco Orpheum, news clipping file, CSf-PALM; San Francisco Orpheum Chronology, unpublished document, CSf-PALM. See NYC, March 23, 1889, 34; SFC, May 10, 1898, 14.

19. SFC, July 1, 1887, 3; SFE, May 11, 1913, clipping, vol. 6, OPNR-CU-B.

20. Orpheum playbill, January 16, 1888, binder 1888, CSf-PALM.

21. Isman, Weber and Fields, 133. See Fields and Fields, From the Bowery to Broadway, 88-90.

22. Isman, Weber and Fields, 135, 139, 141.

23. Ibid., 143, 144.

24. Ibid., 83.

25. NYC, January 26, 1889, 740; NYM, August 6, 1887, 4.