Vaudeville Wars

VAUDEVILLE WARS

How the Keith-Albee and Orpheum Circuits Controlled the Big Time and Its Performers
written by Arthur Frank Wertheim, published by Palgrave Macmillan

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Notes: Part Five Vaudevillians Versus The Combine



Notes for other pages of Vaudeville Wars can be found by clicking on the appropriate link in the Table of Contents.

Page numbers below refer to page numbers in the printed book. When a paragraph in the book does not contain a note it is identified by placing quotation marks around key words in the first sentence. In cases where there is a note in the published version, references have been added after the cited note, often followed by the word "see."

Part Five Vaudevillians Versus The Combine

11. The Vaudeville Machine


1. Variety, December 12, 1908, 19, See NYS, May 15, 1909, copy Orpheum office file, BRTC-NN.

2. Hartley Davis, "The Business Side of Vaudeville," Everybody's Magazine, October 1907, 534; Variety, March 10, 1916, 4; Orpheum Circuit of Theatres (1909), published in connection with the opening of the new San Francisco Orpheum, copy CSf-PALM. See Billboard, November 19, 1910, 2, February 11, 1911, 11; NYC, November 26, 1910, 1028; NYMT, September 10, 1911, 1, September 1, 1912, sec. 4, 1; Variety, September 18, 1909, 4, February 26, 1910, 7.

3. Billboard, May 22, 1909, 10. See NYC, March 28, 1908, 150; Variety, February, 20, 1909, 5; May 15, 1909, n.p.

4. SFE, January 31, 1909, vol. 2, OPNR-Cu-B; Variety, March 7, 1908, 6; Oakland Tribune, August 25, 1907, vol. 1, OPNR-Cu-B.

5. LAT, February 23, 1908, part 6, 1; Variety, March 7, 1908, 6.

p. 153 "Symbolic of the Orpheum's success"
"G. Albert Lansburgh Collection, 1891-1939," Online Archive of California, http://www.oac.cdlib.org/findaid/ark:/13030/tf3n39n6xr; "G. Albert Lansburgh (1876-1969)," Environmental Design Archives, University of California, Berkeley, http://www.ced.berkeley.edu/cedarchives/profiles/lansburgh.htm (accessed January 29, 2005); G. Albert Lansburgh, "Some Novel Features of a Strictly Fire-Proof Theater Building," Architect and Engineer of California 17(June 1909):37-41; NYC, April 24, 1909, 281; San Francisco Bulletin, April 17, 1909, copy CSf-PALM; SFC, April 11, 1909, April 18, 1909, April 20, 1909, SFE, April 12, 1909, April 20, 1909, vol. 2, OPNR-Cu-B.

6. San Francisco Call, April 20, 1909, vol. 2, OPNR-Cu-B. See Gagey, San Francisco Stage, 210-11; Billboard, May 1, 1909, 4; Variety, April 17, 1909, 9, 28, April 24, 1909, 4.

7. SFE, January 15, 1911, vol. 4, OPNR-CU-B.

8. San Francisco Bulletin, January 8, 1916, vol. 9, OPNR-CU-B.

9. SFE, January 15, 1911, vol. 4; August 13, 1911, vol. 5; April 11, 1916, vol. 9; San Francisco Bulletin, April 13, 1916, vol. 9, OPNR-CU-B.

10. LAT, June 27, 1911, 1-2; Variety, December 20, 1912, 34. See Stan Singer, "Vaudeville in Los Angeles, 1910-1926: Theaters, Management, and the Orpheum," Pacific Historical Review 61 (November 1992):103-13; Stan Singer, "The Orpheum Theater of Los Angeles," Southern California Quarterly 72, no. 4(1990):339-72; NYC, July 15, 1911, 4; Stanford P. Singer, "Vaudeville West; To Los Angeles and the Final Stages of Vaudeville" (PhD diss., University of California, Los Angeles, 1987), 141-83; "Downtown Palace Theatre," 630 South Broadway, http://laconservancy.org/initiatives/palace.php4 (accessed September 16, 2004); "Muses of Vaudeville (Palace Theater, Los Angeles)," historical background, http://www.usc.edu/isd/archives/la/pubart/Downtown/Broadway/
palace theater (accessed September 16, 2004).

11. SFC, July 27, 1908, vol. 1, OPNR-CU-B. See Davis, "The Business Side of Vaudeville," 534; Orpheum Circuit of Theatres (1909); Western Vaudeville Managers' Association Year Book, 1913, copy, NN-L-BRTC; Western Vaudeville Managers' Association Year Book, 1914, copy, HTC-MH; Billboard, June 12, 1909, 10; NYC, June 5, 1909, 425, November 27, 1909, 1053, December 25, 1909, 1152; NYDM, November 27, 1909, 19; NYT, August 18, 1908, 7; Variety, January 29, 1910, 3, February 9, 1909, 7, November 20, 1909, 1, December 11, 1909, 1, December 25, 1909, 1152, January 15, 1910, 1221.

12. SFE, August 23, 1908, vol. 2, OPNR-CU-B. See Elliott, History of Variety-Vaudeville in Seattle, 55-56; NYC, March 12, 1910, 103, April 8, 1911, 5; NYMT, March 10, 1911, 4; Variety, August 24, 1912, 2, January 17, 1913, 2.

13. SFE, August 13, 1911, vol. 5; San Francisco Call, September 4, 1916, vol. 10, OPNR-CU-B.

14. Billboard, November 29, 1913, 25.

p. 157 "On the sixth floor"
Keith News, March 6, 1905, clippings scrapbook #38, KAC-IaU; "Some Facts in Opposition to the Cobb-Green and Wagner-Green Bills Affecting Theatrical Employment . . ." (1910), pp. 13, 16, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, box 73, NARA-CP; NYC, February 15, 1913, 12; Variety, September 30, 1911. 8, June 27, 1919, 29.

15. Final Argument Before the Federal Trade Commission, p. 3366, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, box 69, NARA-CP; Gordon, Max Gordon Presents, 93.

16. Variety, December 26, 1908, 3; letter of Charles Churchill to the Federal Trade Commission, June 19, 1918, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, auxiliary box 74, NARA-CP.

17. "Brief in Behalf of All Respondents," p. 45, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, box 69, NARA-CP; Frederic LaDelle, How to Enter Vaudeville: A Complete Illustrated Course of Instruction (Jackson, MI: Frederic LaDelle Co., 1913) in http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/bobhope/vaude/image 37 (accessed November 6, 2003). See United Booking Offices, Number of Acts Booked, FTC vs VMPA, docket #128, box 73, NARA-CP.

18. Herbert Lloyd, Vaudeville Trails thru the West: "By the One Who Knows" (San Francisco: San Francisco Publishing and Advertising, 1919), 4; Variety, May 2, 1919, 28, June 27, 1919, 29. See Final Argument before the Federal Trade Commission, p. 3372, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, box 69, NARA-CP;

19. "Brief in Behalf of All Respondents," p. 47. See "Some Facts in Opposition to the Cobb-Green and Wagner-Green Bills Affecting Theatrical Employment Agencies . . ." p. 7; .

20. NYC, October 5, 1912, 10. See Page, Writing for Vaudeville, 28-29; Wilmeth, Language of American Popular Entertainment, 4, 103, 140, 186, 187.

pp. 162-63 "The entire show was packaged"
Erdman, Blue Vaudeville, 53; Page, Writing for Vaudeville, 6-12; Snyder, "American Vaudeville---Theatre in a Package," 123-28; Wilmeth, Language of American Popular Entertainment, 50, 82, 94, 126.

p. 163 "At the Monday morning rehearsals"
Providence Sunday Tribune, December 23, 1906, clippings scrapbook #40, KAC-IaU.

21. Keith's Providence manager's report book, March 23, 1903, scrapbook #1, KAC-IaU.

22. NYMT, December 15, 1912, sec. 3, 5.

23. Ibid.

24. Variety, December 20, 1912, 24, February 28, 1919, 30.

25. Edward Renton, The Vaudeville Theatre, Building, Operation, Management (New York; Gotham Press, 1918), 121-22.

26. LaDelle, How to Enter Vaudeville, http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/bobhope/vaude/image 30; Fred Allen, Much Ado About Me (Boston: Little, Brown, 1956), 188.

27. Keith's Providence manager's report, January 3, 1903, scrapbook #1, p, 171, KAC-IaU. See Laurie, Vaudeville, 175, 266.

28. Tucker, Some of These Days, 148-49. See Keith News, February 27, 1905, scrapbook #38; Keith's Union Square manager's report, February 26, 1906, scrapbook #5, p. 202, KAC-IaU; .

29. Keith's Boston manager's report, July 5, 1909, scrapbook #10, p. 153; Keith's Boston manager's report, March 8, 1909, scrapbook #11; Keith's Philadelphia manager's report, April 30, 1917, scrapbook #20, p. 97; Keith's Boston manager's report, July 5, 1909, scrapbook #10, p. 153; Keith's Boston manager's report, March 1, 1909, scrapbook #10, p. 74,; Pittsburgh Grand Opera House manager's report, February 8, 1909, scrapbook #10, p. 88; Keith's Boston manager's report, February 4, 1907, scrapbook #7, p. 6, KAC-IaU.

30. Keith's Boston manager's report, March 1, 1909, scrapbook #10, p. 74; Keith's Philadelphia manager's report, December 14, 1905, scrapbook #5, p. 111; Keith's Cleveland manager's report, January 15, 1906, scrapbook #5, p. 158, KAC-IaU.

31. Keith's Union Square manager's report, September 22, 1902, scrapbook #1, p. 7; Keith's Philadelphia manager's report, September 22, 1902, scrapbook #1, p. 8; Keith's Boston manager's report, January 20, 1913, scrapbook #15, p. 179, KAC-IaU.
Keith's Providence manager's report, February 12, 1921, scrapbook #23, p. 115, KAC-IaU.

p. 167 "Despite their crusade"
Erdman, Blue Vaudeville, 83-126; EV, 449-51; Susan Glenn, Female Spectacle: The Theatrical Roots of Modern Feminism (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000), 96-125.

32. Keith's Philadelphia manager's report, January 6, 1908, scrapbook #8, p. 172, KAC-IaU.

33. Variety, March 10, 1916, 4.

12. A Host of Grievances

p. 170 "Besides censorship"
Gilbert, American Vaudeville, 230; B. F. Keith Circuit contract, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, box 73, NARA-CP; Variety, June 6, 1908, 4; Will Rogers's Keith Circuit Contract, February 17, 1911, OkClaW; see PWR 3:207.

1. Groucho Marx, Groucho and Me (New York: Bernard Geis, 1959), 96; NYMT, December 29, 1910, 1.

2. Booking Agreement Contract, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, box 73, NARA-CP. See Variety, June 13, 1919, 30.

pp. 170-71 "Agents booking through the UBO"
"Some Facts in Opposition to the Cobb-Green and Wagner-Green Bills Affecting Theatrical Employment Agencies ," p. 15; Bernheim, "Facts of Vaudeville," Equity (December 1923):35, 39-40; United Booking Offices Year Ending Report, December 30, 1918, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, box 73, NARA-CP.

3. Allen, Much Ado About Me, 214; Variety, January 25, 1908, 3; Bernheim, "Facts of Vaudeville," Equity (February 1924):40. See "Brief in Behalf of All Respondents," p. 44; Gilbert, American Vaudeville, 230; Billboard, May 14, 1927, 12, July 21, 1928, 15; NYC, May 18, 1912, 3, May 25, 1912, 8, June 29, 1912, 8, August 10, 1912, 8; Variety, January 13, 1912, 3, 6, December 5, 1913, 8, January 23, 1914, 17, July 25, 1928, 48.

p. 171 "Low Salaries"
Buster Keaton datebooks, Buster Keaton Collection, CLAC; Glenn, Female Spectacle, 13, 79; Davis, "The Business Side of Vaudeville," 527; "Some Facts in Opposition to the Cobb-Green and Wagner-Green Bills Affecting Theatrical Employment Agencies," pp. 8, 18; Billboard, January 25, 1910, 5; NYDM, August 6, 1913, 4; NYMT, February 9, 1910, 4, March 27, 1910, 2, January 5, 1911, 2; Player, December 22, 1911, 38; Variety, March 12, 1910, 3, 18, August 6, 1910, 6; December 10, 1910, 50.

4. NYMT, January 22, 1911, 2, May 26, 1912, sec. 4, 2; "Memoirs," p. 19, file 2a, Edward V. and Alfred T. Darling Papers, *T-Mss 1986-005, NN--L-BRTC. See Erdman, Blue Vaudeville, 127-62; Glenn, Female Spectacle, 63-66, 106-10; Jane Westerfield, "An Investigation of the Life Styles and Performance of Three Singer-Comediennes of American Vaudeville: Eva Tanguay, Nora Bayes, and Sophie Tucker" (DA diss., Ball State University, 1987); Eva Tanquay UBO contract, January 10, 1919, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, box 73, NARA-CP; NYMT, January 15, 1911, 2.

5. "Memoirs," p. 18. See Gilbert, Vaudeville, 198-99; Laurie, Vaudeville, 245-47; NYDM, June 25, 1913, 18; Variety, August 6, 1910, 5-6.

6. NYDM, July 7, 1915, 18. See Keaton, My Wonderful World of Slapstick, 82.

p. 172 "The owners felt"
Michael M. Davis, Exploitation of Pleasure (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1911), 25; Davis, "Business Side of Vaudeville," 527-29; Ledger from B. F. Keith's Theater, Indianapolis, August 29, 1921-June 14, 1925, "Bob Hope and American Variety"; Billboard, October 16, 1909, 14; NYMT, January 5, 1911, 2.

p. 173 "The theater owners"
Davis, "Business Side of Vaudeville," 527-28, 533; Variety, December 20, 1912, 6.

7. Variety, June 20, 1919, 28; Allen, Much Ado About Me, 185. See NYMT, June 30, 1911, 1, July 3, 1911, 1.

p. 173 "Since many people had the day off"
Erdman, Blue Vaudeville, 26-30; Billboard, March 10, 1906, 14; NYDM, August 8, 1903, 16, February 17, 1906, 16, February 12, 1910, 20; NYT, December, 4, 1907, 1, December 1, 1908, 9, December 27, 1908, 1: 1-2, December 28, 1908, 1, December 29, 1908, 3, May 28, 1909, 9, May 29, 1909, 7, July 5, 1909, 1, December 3, 1909, 9; Variety, December 16, 1905, 3, December 7, 1907, 2, January 2, 1909, 3, December 12, 1912, 6.

p. 173 "Vaudevillians, who were also subject"
NYT, December 28, 1908, 1, July 5, 1909, 1.

p. 174 "In addition to salary problems"
Allen, Much Ado About Me, 215; NYC, December 5, 1908, 1053; NYS, November 28, 1908, copy vaudeville booking clipping file, NN-BRTC; Variety, November 28, 1908, 7, July 10, 1914, 5.

p. 174 "Routes compiled by the booking offices"
Keaton, My Wonderful World of Slapstick, 82; Lloyd, Vaudeville Trails thru the West; see "Bob Hope and American Variety," http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/bobhope/images/vc38.jpg; Bernheim, "Facts of Vaudeville," Equity (December 1923):36, 38-43, 45-47;(February 1924):39-40; Laurie, Vaudeville, 25; JCOTG.

8. Allen, Much Ado About Me, 185; Jack Benny and Joan Benny, Sunday Nights at Seven: The Jack Benny Story (New York: Warner Books, 1990), 14; Marx, Groucho and Me, 92. On the Ehrich House see Buster Keaton datebook, February 1913, CLAC; Laurie, Vaudeville, 280; PWR 2: 522.

9. Nugent, It's a Great Life, 188.

10. Fred Allen to Arthur Havel, n.d., ms. 2033, box 81, folder 31, Fred Allen Collection, Boston Public Library.

p. 174 "Vaudevillians were constantly worried"
Bernheim, "Facts of Vaudeville," Equity (February 1924):42-43, 45; Final Argument before the Federal Trade Commission, pp. 3356-57, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, box 69, NARA-CP.

11. Bernheim, "Facts of Vaudeville," Equity (February 1924):40; Player, September 6, 1912, 12; Complete Expose of the Vaudeville Trust, unsigned letter to William B. Colver, John Franklin Fort, and Victor Murdock, June 2, 1918, p. 8, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, auxiliary box 73, NARA-CP.

12. Variety, December 28, 1907, 2; Player, September 6, 1912, 12. See Ann Douglas, Terrible Honesty: Mongrel Manhattan in the 1920s (New York: Noonday Press, 1996), 380; Glenn, Female Spectacle, 13.

13. NYC, June 24, 1911, 8. See M. Alison Kibler, "Female Varieties: Gender and Cultural Hierarchy on the Keith Vaudeville Circuit, 1890-1925" (PhD diss., University of Iowa, 1994, 235-38); Kibler, Rank Ladies, 180-84.

14. Keaton, My Wonderful World of Slapstick, 78; Ethel Waters with Charles Samuels, His Eye Is on the Sparrow (New York: Doubleday, 1951), 179. See Nadine George-Graves, The Royalty of Negro Vaudeville: The Whitman Sisters and the Negotiation of Race, Gender and Class in African American Theatre, 1900-1940 (New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000), 52; Henry T. Sampson, The Ghost Walks: A Chronological History of Blacks in Show Business, 1865-1910 (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1988), 256; NYMT, April 25, 1910, 4.

15. Variety, December 15, 1906, 22, December 24, 1907, 31. See Helen Armstead-Johnson, "Blacks in Vaudeville: Broadway and Beyond," American Popular Entertainment: Papers and Proceedings of the Conference on the History of American Popular Entertainment, ed. Myron Matlaw (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1979), 77-86; EV, 49-52; Laurie, Vaudeville, 201-7.

16. Keith's Boston, Manager's Report, week of November 20, 1905, KAC-IaU. See Kibler, "Female Varieties," 51; Nasaw, Going Out, 53-60.

p. 178 "For black performers"
EV, 289.

17. Variety, December 19, 1913, 18, December 25, 1914, 13.

18. Waters, His Eye Is on the Sparrow, 124, 177. See Nasaw, Going Out, 31-32; Renton, Vaudeville Theatre, 15.

p. 179 "Despite civil rights statues"
John E. DiMeglio, Vaudeville U.S.A (Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green University Press, 1973), 116; George-Graves, Royalty of Negro Vaudeville, 41, 98-99; Kibler, Rank Ladies, 34-36; NYTM, July 27, 1913, 4.

19. Constitution and By Laws of White Rats Actors' Union of America, Incorporated (1912), 16, Pamphlets in American History, microfiche #L2859; Variety, February 3, 1906, 11, NYC, June 19, 1909, 488. See NYC, July 15, 1911, 5, February 9, 1927, 21; Variety, December 15, 1906, 22, February 9, 1927, 21.

20. NYC, April 15, 1911, 5. See NYC, June 19, 1909, 488, June 24, 1911, 8, July 15, 1911, 5; NYMT, April 3, 1911, 4; Variety, March 31, 1916, 16.

p. 180 "With limited access"
George-Graves, Royalty of Negro Vaudeville, 103-9; Henry T. Sampson, Blacks in Blackface; A Sourcebook on Early Black Musical Shows (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1980), 14-51; CGAT, 462; EV, 496; Billboard, December 31, 1921, 10; LAT, March 22, 2000, F1, F8; NYC, September 12, 1917, 12.

13. Broadway Sime and the British Lion

p. 181 "Brash and feisty"
On Silverman and Variety see Peter Besas, Inside `Variety': The Story of the Bible of Show Business (1905-1987) (Madrid and New York: Ars Milenni, 2000), 19-39; Gilbert, American Vaudeville, 373--82; Abel Green and Joe Laurie, Jr., Show Biz: From Vaude to Video (New York: Henry Holt, 1951), xiii-xxiii; Robert J. Landry, "Variety---Going on 75," Variety, weekly series, March 26, 1980--December 31, 1980; Dayton Stoddart, Lord Broadway: Variety's Sime (New York: Wilfred Funk, 1941); DAB 9:167-68; EV, 466-67, 524-25; NYT, September 23, 1933, 15; VO 2:26 September 1933.

1. Variety, December 16, 1905, 2, December 30, 1925, 8, December 31, 1930, 10. On the history of theatrical trade papers see Billboard, September 14, 1912, 11; CGAT, 142, 183, 342-43; NYC, February 28, 1903, ii-iii, May 8, 1923, 8; NYDM, December 24, 1898, 34-61, December 19, 1903, xxxvii; NYM, December 15, 1888, 2-6; NYMT, November 11, 1911, 1.

2. Variety, December 31, 1930 10.

3. VO, 2: September 26, 1933. 9. See Green and Laurie, Show Biz, xviii-xx.

4. Gilbert, American Vaudeville, 229. See CGAT, 412.

5. Variety, December 16, 1905, 3.

p. 184 "In his columns"
Besas, Inside "Variety," 38.

p. 184 "Coming from different roots"
Gilbert, American Vaudeville, 377.

6. Variety, December 16, 1905, 3, January 20, 1906, 3. See Lowell Stewart Harris, "Variety and Vaudeville: Sime Silverman's Influence on the Organization of Vaudeville Artists" (master's thesis, University of South Florida, 1994).

7. Variety, June 2, 1906, 4.

p. 185 "Since the loss of its 1901 strike"
Ibid., December 19, 1908, 22; Laurie, Vaudeville, 211.

8. Variety, March 9, 1907, 5.

p. 185 "When the UBO leaders"
Bernheim, "The Facts of Vaudeville," Equity (September 1923): 11; Francisco, "The White Rats Versus the Czars of Vaudeville," 96; Variety, June 20, 1908, 8, June 23, 1916, 14.

p. 186 "To strengthen the White Rats"
D. F. Cheshire, Music Hall in Britain, (Newton Abbot, England: David & Charles, 1974), 42-48; Louis Rutherford, "`Managers in a Small Way': The Professionalization of Variety Artistes, 1860-1914," in Music Hall: The Business of Pleasure, ed., Peter Bailey (Milton Keynes, England: Open University Press, 1986), 107-11; Fred Russell, History of the Grand Order of Water Rats, 9, copy VATM; Stoddart, Lord Broadway, 146-48; Roger Wilmut, Kindly Leave the Stage!, the Story of Variety, 1919-69 (London: Methuen, 1985), 49; Variety, September 15, 1906, 2, October 13, 1906, 2, November 24, 1906, 6, December 1, 1906, 2.

p. 186 "Hoping to begin a new career"
Francisco, "The White Rats Versus the Czars of Vaudeville," 94-95; Gilbert, American Vaudeville, 388; Snyder, Voice of the City, 74; Billboard, November 8, 1919, 37-38; NYC, October 22, 1919, 4; Variety, December 23, 1911, 47, 122; VO, 4: June 7, 1950.

10. Golden, My Lady Vaudeville and the White Rats, 195; Variety, December 31, 1910, 7, 10. See Stoddart, Lord Broadway, 147, 227; NYC, July 11, 1908, 538. For a picture of Mountford in evening clothes see Buster Keaton Scrapbook, p. 119, Buster Keaton Collection, CLAC.

11. Variety, July 25, 1908, 8.

12. Ibid., June 20, 1908, 4. See NYC, July 11, 1908, 539, September 19, 1908, 788; NYDM, July 31, 1909, 18; Variety, July 11, 1908, 4, 8, July 25, 1908, 4, 8, September 12, 1908, 8, November 21, 1908, 3, December 12, 1908, 52, July 24, 1909, 3, March 2, 1912, 5.

13. Variety, June 19, 1909, 5. See "Some Facts in Opposition to the Cobb-Green and Wagner-Green Bills Affecting Theatrical Employment Agencies," pp. 14, 18; Billboard, July 3, 1909, 8, NYC, April 3, 1909, 189, April 24, 1909, 269, May 22, 1909, 373, May 29, 1909, 405, September 18, 1909, 806, August 20, 1910, 669; NYDM, January 29, 1910, 20; NYMT, March 7, 1910, 4; NYT, April 28, 1909, 5; Variety, May 1, 1909, 6, June 19, 1909, 5, June 27, 1919, 29.

pp. 187-88 "The UBO executives"
Stoddart, Lord Broadway, 146; The Federal Reporter, vol. 185, May 1911 (St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1911), 1003-5; NYMT, November 5, 1910, 4; Variety, June 8, 1912, 8.

14. "Brief in Behalf of All Respondents," p. 54. See Vaudeville Collection Agency contract, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, box 73, NARA-CP; Billboard, January 26, 1924, 123.

p. 188 "Agents were told"
Billboard, February 2, 1924, 15; Bernheim, "The Facts of Vaudeville," Equity (January 1924):15; Variety, October 24, 1913, 8, October 22, 1915, 14.

15. Player, September 27, 1912, 12. See Billboard, January 5, 1911, 12; NYC, January 7, 1911, 1161, January 14, 1911, 1185, April 22, 1911, 5; NYMT, April 12, 1911, 1, October 20, 1911, 1; NYT, March 15, 1911, 7, April 12, 1911, 9, April 15, 1911; Variety, December 3, 1910, 4, December 31, 1910, 3, January 7, 1911, 6, January 20, 1912, 5, June 8, 1912, 8, February 21, 1919, 32-33.

pp. 188-89 "After two years in office"
American Federation of Labor Certificate of Affiliation, December 7, 1910, signed by Gompers and other members of the executive council, series 7, box 7, folder 160, AAAA-NA; Billboard, November 19, 1910, 12; NYC, November 12, 1910, 978, November 19, 1910, 993, December 31, 1910, 1137, June 24, 1911, 8; NYMT, November 8, 1910, 1, December 23, 1910, 12; NYT, November 8, 1910, 6; Player, November 11, 1910, 1; Variety, September 24, 1910, 5, November 12, 1910, 5.

p. 189 "Recognition by the AFL"
NYC, December 14, 1912, 10; NYMT, December 7, 1912, 12, December 8, 1912, 3; Player, January 5, 1912, 12-13, June 7, 1912, 13, December 13, 1912, 1.

16. Vaudeville Managers Protective Association agreement, December 19, 1910, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, box 73, NARA-CP. See motion made at the Vaudeville Managers Protective Association organizing meeting, December 7, 1910, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, box 73, NARA-CP.

17. Variety, April 29, 1911, 13. See By-laws of the Vaudeville Managers Protective Agency and List of Circuits in the Vaudeville Managers Protective Association, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, box 73, NARA-CP; Vaudeville Mangers Protective Association 1912 Yearbook, copy BRTC-NN; NYC, March 11, 1911, 1, March 25, 1911, 1, April 1, 1911, 1, April 29, 1911, 1, June 10, 1911, 7; NYDM, March 22, 1910, 14, March 29, 1911, 12, May 31, 1911, 18; NYMT, March 17, 1911, 1, March 29, 1911, 12, April 21, 1911, 1, May 14, 1911, 2, May 17, 1911, 1; Variety, March 4, 1911, 5, March 25, 1911, 5, April 22, 1911, 9.

p. 190 "Once the WRAU was formed"
NYDM, March 8, 1911, 13; NYMT, June 4, 1911, 1.

18. Variety, April 22, 1911, 9, September 2, 1911, 3. See NYC, April 1, 1911, 1; NYDM, March 29, 1911, 12; NYMT, March 24, 1911, 1, March 29, 1911, 12; Variety, March 25, 1911, 5, April 22, 1911, 9.

19. NYMT, June 11, 1911, sec. 4, 3; Variety, June 17, 1911, 6, 21.

20. Variety, June 17, 1911, 6; Player, June 7, 1912, 12. See Stoddart, Lord Broadway, 147, 173-75; Laurie, Vaudeville, 313; NYMT, June 15, 1911, 1, August 6, 1911, sec. 4, 4, August 19, 1911, 12, December 27, 1911, 1; NYT, June 16, 1911, 9; Variety, June 17, 1911, 6, August 5, 1911, 16, August 12, 1911, 10.

p. 191 "The more conservative"
NYMT, May 14, 1911, 5, July 9, 1911, sec. 4, 3; Variety, May 6, 1911, 3, 18, June 10, 1911, 3, 18, 25, June 17, 1911, 8, July 1, 1911, 3, 10, July 8, 1911, 8, July 15, 1911, 10-11, 22-23, 31, August 5, 1911, 11, 18.

21. Variety, January 4, 1911, 7, August 19, 1911, 7.

p. 192 "Silverman's criticism"
NYDM, June 21, 1911, 15, September 20, 1911, 13; NYMT, June 11, 1911, sec. 4, 3; NYT, September 15, 1911, 6; Variety, December 31, 1910, 7, July 15, 1911, 8.

p. 192 "The WRAU leaders"
Glenn, Female Spectacle, 13-14; Billboard, October 7, 1911, 6, March 7, 1914, 61; NYMT, October 1, 1911, 1; Variety, October 7, 1911, 9, December 23, 1911, 122.

22. Variety, February 24, 1912, 6; Player, March 1, 1912, 5.