Vaudeville Wars

VAUDEVILLE WARS

How the Keith-Albee and Orpheum Circuits Controlled the Big Time and Its Performers
written by Arthur Frank Wertheim, published by Palgrave Macmillan

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Notes: Part Six Albee Takes Control



Notes for other pages of Vaudeville Wars can be found by clicking on the appropriate link in the Table of Contents.

Page numbers below refer to page numbers in the printed book. When a paragraph in the book does not contain a note it is identified by placing quotation marks around key words in the first sentence. In cases where there is a note in the published version, references have been added after the cited note, often followed by the word "see."

Part Six Albee Takes Control

14. How Albee Stole the Palace


p. 197 "With the departure of Mountford"
Billboard, October 16, 1909, 16; NYC, September 5, 1908, 727; Variety, September 23, 1909, 1, October 2, 1909, 1, November 13, 1909, 1.

1. Billboard, February 5, 1910, 4; SFC, January 22, 1910, 1. See Billboard, January 26, 1924, 15; Variety, December 10, 1910, 20-21, 33, 119, 131, January 17, 1924, 5.

2. NYMT, February 7, 1910, 1.

p. 198 "But unbeknownst to their Orpheum colleagues"
On Rhinock see VO 1:September 22, 1926. On Cox see Zane L. Miller, Boss Cox's Cincinnati: Urban Politics in the Progressive Era (New York: Oxford University Press, 1968), 74-100, 205-8, 239-41; DAB 11:473-74; VO 1:May 26, 1916. See also Hirsch, Boys from Syracuse, 56-57; Stagg, Brothers Shubert, 74; NYC, September 10, 1910, 745; Variety, July 23, 1910, 5.

3. NYT, July 17, 1910, 9; Variety, August 20, 1910, 5; Billboard, September 3, 1910, 24. See Billboard, June 11, 1910, 24, July 30, 1910, 24; NYC, July 23, 1910, 582; NYDM, July 23, 1910, 17; NYMT, June 3, 1910, 1, July 15, 1910, 4, July 21, 1910, 4; Player, July 22, 1910, 1; Variety, July 16, 1910, 3, 13.

4. Billboard, September 24, 1910, 17. See Variety, September 3, 1910, 3.

5. Variety, April 1, 1911, 5; NYMT, December 25, 1911, 1, December 26, 1911, 1.

6. Billboard, March 20, 1913, 4; SFC, January 8, 1912, 12. See Marian Spitzer, The Palace (New York: Atheneum, 1969), 10-11; Billboard, June 11, 1910, 5; NYC, July 23, 1910, 577, December 30, 1911, 1; NYMT, June 2, 1910, 4; July 11, 1910, 1, July 13, 1910, 1, December 21, 1911, 4, February 10, 1912, 14; Player, February 16, 1912, 8; Variety, December 30, 1911, 9, January 23, 1912, 5.

7. NYMT, December 26, 1911, 2; NYC, February 17, 1912, 9.

8. NYMT, December 21, 1911, 4, December 25, 1911, 1.

9. Ibid., December 26, 1911, 1, 2.

10. Ibid.

11. San Francisco Call, January 8, 1912, vol. 5, OPNR-CU-B; NYC, March 9, 1912, 1.

12. NYMT, March 5, 1912, 1, March 11, 1912, 1. See NYC, February 17, 1912, x; NYMT, September 3, 1911, sec. 4, 1, 2, February 29, 1912, 1.

13. NYMT, March 3, 1912, 4, March 12, 1912, 1; NYT, March 9, 1912, 13. See Variety, March 16, 1912, 6.

p. 201 "Keith and Albee wanted to buy"
Marston and Feller, F. F. Proctor, 101-6; Billboard, February 25, 1911, 7, August 5, 1911, 7, August 19, 1911, 10, 55; NYC, February 25, 1911, 18, August 5, 1911, 1, October 28, 1911, 1; NYDM, June 21, 1911, 15, August 2, 1911, 1, October 25, 1911, 12; NYMT, July 28, 1911, 1, August 12, 1911, 1, February 18, 1911, 1, February 19, 1911, 1, September 9, 1911, 1, October 20, 1911, 1, December 23, 1911, 1; NYMT, April 7, 1912, 7, April 28, 1912, sec. 4, 2; Variety, February 4, 1911, 3, February 11, 1911, 4, February 25, 1911, 6, March 11, 1911, 4, May 6, 1911, 9, June 24, 1911, 5, July 15, 1911, 9, July 22, 1911, 5, August 5, 1911, 13, August 12, 1911, 12, May 25, 1912, 5.

14. SFE, May 3, 1912, clipping, vol. 5, OPNR-CU-B. See letter of Harold L. Warner to Arthur Klein, August 10, 1921, p. 2, box 32, folder 2, corporate series, NNSA; Billboard, April 2, 1919, 30, March 6, 1920, 16, January 26, 1924, 15; Bernheim, "Facts of Vaudeville," Equity (September 1923):37; NYC, July 6, 1912, 14; NYMT, July 1, 1912, 1, July 2, 1912, 10; NYT, April 29, 1912, 11, June 29, 1912, 11, September 18, 1924, 18; Player, April 12, 1912, 1, April 19, 1912, 1, April 26, 1912, 3, July 5, 1912, 8; Variety, May 4, 1912, 5, April 11, 1919, 34, January 24, 1920, 6, September 17, 1920, 4.

15. SFC, May 3, 1912, 12; NYT, April 29, 1912, 11; NYMT, September 7, 1913, sec. 4, pt. 2, 2. See NYC, June 1, 1912, 9; NYMT, September 1, 1912, sec. 2, 2, December 15, 1912, sec. 3, 2; Player, May 3, 1912, 30, September 5, 1913, 1, October 10, 1913, 1; Variety, June 1, 1912, 5; January 17, 1913, 2.

16. Memoirs, file 2A, Darling Papers, file 2A, NN--L-BRTC; Variety, November 18, 1912, 5; NYT, October 28, 1913, 11. See Green and Laurie, Show Biz, 85; letter of Harold L. Warner to Arthur Klein, August 10, 1921, box 32, folder 2, corporate series, NNSA; Spitzer, Palace, 12-13; Bernheim, "Facts of Vaudeville," Equity (September 1923):35, 37; Billboard, April 2, 1919, 30, March 6, 1920, 16; NYT, October 28, 1913, 11; Variety, August 23, 1912, 1, October 31, 1912, 7, April 11, 1919, 34.

17. NYMT, September 7, 1913, sec. 4, pt. 2, 2; Variety, April 14, 1916, 15.

p. 204 "Albee needed now"
Carroll, "Oscar Hammerstein I," 168-70; Billboard, March 20, 1913, 4; NYDM, April 30, 1913, 10; NYMT, April 26, 1913, 4; October 30, 1915, 20; Player, March 28, 1913, 1, 8; Variety, March 21, 1913, 3, 8, April 4, 1913, 3, April 25, 1913, 3, May 2, 1913, 6, October 31, 1913, 7, November 5, 1915, 6, February 11, 1921, 12.

18. Gordon, Max Gordon Presents, 76. See EV, 385-87; Henderson, City and the Theatre, 265; Laurie, Vaudeville, 481-98; Landmark Preservation Commission, Description List 190, July 14, 1897, copy NNMuS; NYMT, March 23, 1913, sec. 4, pt.1, 1, 3, March 25, 1913, 12.

p. 205 "As the Palace's chief booker"
Variety, March 28, 1913, 9; Billboard, April 5, 1913, 4.

19. Town Talk, January 13, 1912, vol. 5, OPNR-CU-B; NYMT, December 15, 1912, sec. 3, 5.

20. Ethel Barrymore, Memories: An Autobiography (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1955), 176-77. See OCAT, 56 58; NYMT, June 11, 1912, 4; Variety, March 28, 1913, 5, April 4, 1913, 3, April 25, 1913, 3, 17.

21. "Martin Beck, Impresario, Dies; Built Orpheum Vaudeville Chain," clipping, Beck file, NNMuS; NYMT, March 7, 1912, 4; Variety, March 9, 1912, 6.

22. SFC, February 10, 1913, 4. See SFE, February 9, 1913, vol. 6, OPNR-Cu-B; SFC, February 17, 1913, 4, February 23, 1913, 42.

p. 208 "During her three and one-half engagement"
Glenn, Female Spectacle, 18-39; Green and Laurie, Show Biz, 155; Charles and Louise Samuels, Once Upon a Stage: The Merry World of Vaudeville (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1974), 255-62; Spitzer, Palace, 18-23; Leigh Woods, "Sarah Bernhardt and the Refining of American Vaudeville," Theatre Research International 18, no. 1(1993):16-24; Woods, "Two-a-Day Redemptions and Truncated Camilles: The Vaudeville Repertoire of Sarah Bernhardt," New Theatre Quarterly 9(February 1994):11-23.

23. Tucker, Some of These Days, 150-51.

p. 209 "After the Palace became"
EV
, 227--28; Laurie, Vaudeville, 395-96; Billboard, June 20, 1914, 29; NYC, December 13, 1913, 3, June 20, 1914, 14; NYT, June 11, 1914, 11; Variety, December 25, 1914, 17; VO 1:June 12, 1914.

24. Keaton, My Wonderful World of Slapstick, 83.

25. Shean, Oscar Hammerstein I, 338. See Green and Laurie, Show Biz, 154-58; Billboard, July 11, 1914, 3, August 8, 1914.

26. Billboard, October 30, 1915, 63. See Shean, Oscar Hammerstein I, 344-47; Carroll, "Oscar Hammerstein I," 170-83; Billboard, April 10, 1915, 6, November 27, 1915, 6; NYT, October 21, 1915, 11; Variety, December 28, 1917, 247; VO 1:August 8, 1919.

27. Variety, May 4, 1912, 5.

15. Growing Discord

p. 211 "The day spring arrived"
B. F. Keith file, HTC-MH; Providence News, January 18, 1913, clippings scrapbook #49, KAC-IaU; Billboard, April 4, 1914, 4 NYC, November 8, 1913, 3; April 4, 1914, 3; NYDM, November 5, 1913, 22; January 20, 1915, 19; NYMT, October 30, 1913, 1; March 28, 1914, 1; NYT, October 30. 1913, 7.

1. NYS, April 22, 1922, 9; NYMT, March 28, 1914, 1. See Billboard, April 4, 1914, 7; NYMT, March 31, 1914, 10; Variety, April 3, 1914, 5.

2. Providence Tribune, March 28, 1914, clippings scrapbook #50, KAC-IaU. See Billboard, April 4, 1914, 7; NYC, April 11, 1914, 5, May 23, 1914, 3, December 19, 1914, 1; NYDM, January 11, 1896, 17; NYMT, April 1, 1914, 1, NYT, April 1, 1914, 15, April 25, 1914, 15; Variety, April 3, 1914, 5, May 1, 1914, 7, June 25, 1920, 3.

p. 212 "After Keith's death"
Billboard, November 9, 1918, 3, 57; VO 1:November 1, 1918.

3. Variety, August 28, 1914, 3. See NYMT, September 12, 1915.

4. Gordon, Max Gordon Presents, 93; Allen, Much Ado About Me, 208.

5. Marx, Groucho and Me, 181.

6. Variety, May 9, 1919, 32.

7. Larchmont Times, March 13, 1930, 1, copy Larchmont Public Library, NY. See Garnett Westchester Newspapers, April 26, 1983, sec. 3; Larchmont Official Centennial Edition, 1991, 42-44, copies Larchmont Public Library; Mel Gussow, Edward Albee: A Singular Journey (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1999), 24, 30; Billboard, February 7, 1925, 12.

pp. 213-14 "Albee and his wife Laura"
Ernest Freeland Griffin, ed., Westchester County and Its People: A Record (New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Company, 1946), 538, copy Larchmont Public Library; Gussow, Edward Albee, 24-29, 40-41; NYC, May 16, 1914, 2, NYMT, May 7, 1914, 1, 12.

8. Time, September 30, 2002, A7.

9. Ibid. See Gusow, Edward Albee, 21-71, 147, 402-3.

10. Larchmont Times, March 13, 1930, 8, copy Larchmont Public Library. See also clippings June 25, 1925, December 24, 1925, December 31, 1925; Billboard, December 24, 1921, 9, October 4, 1924, 12, February 7, 1925, 12-13.

11. Gilbert, American Vaudeville, 387. See Billboard, April 5, 1924. 11; NYT, March 12, 1930, 32, November 17, 1930, 12.

12. Variety, October 18, 1912, 9, April 18, 1913, 6. See Stoddart, Lord Broadway, 182.

13. Stoddart, Lord Broadway, 184-85.

14. Laurie, Vaudeville, 351. See Besas, Inside "Variety", 91-92; Green and Laurie, Show Biz, 92-95; Spitzer, Palace, 14-16; Stoddart, Lord Broadway, 192-97; Variety, March 7, 1913, 3, March 28, 1913, 3, 19.

p. 216 "As his advertising revenue"
Besas, Inside "Variety," 93-94; Gilbert, American Vaudeville, 376.

15. Green and Laurie, Show Biz, 93-94. See Variety, March 28, 1913, 9, October 31, 1913, 8.

16. Variety, August 28, 1914, 3. See May 9, 1919, 33.

17. Variety, August 28, 1914, 3. See Gilbert, American Vaudeville, 377-79; Stoddart, Lord Broadway, 336.

p. 217 "Since Mountford's resignation"
Bernheim, "Facts of Vaudeville," Equity (September 1923):11; NYC, October 22, 1919, 18; Variety, May 9, 1919, 29, July 4, 1919, 27, April 9, 1920, 24. On the relationship between Frank Fogarty, then the WRAU's president, see Frank Fogarty to Mr. Albee, January 16, 1915, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, box 73, NARA-CP; Edward Albee to Frank Fogarty, January 12, 1915; Variety, May 2, 1919, 29.

pp. 217-18 "Hoping to energize the union"
"Brief in Behalf of All Respondents," p. 29, NARA-CP; Minutes of the WRAU's Board of Directors, October 12 and 13, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, box 73, NARA-CP; Billboard, April 29, 1916, 3; NYC, October 23, 1915, 9, October 30, 1915, 8, November 20, 1915, 35, December 25, 1915, 35; Variety, October 22, 1915, 4, 13, December 10, 1915, 15, July 6, 1917, 6, May 9, 1919, 29, 32, 34, June 20. 1919, 29.

p. 218 "Provoked by Mountford's militancy"
Bernheim, "Facts of Vaudeville," Equity (March 1924):20; NYC, May 9, 1917, 3; NYDM, June 10, 1916, 18-19; NYMT, May 13, 1917, 2; Variety, May 11, 1917, 5, August 1, 1919, 28. On Murdock's attempt to get Frank Fogarty to become the NVA's president see Final Argument before the Federal Trade Commission, p. 3288, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, box 69; NARA-CP. On Fred Stone's appointment as the NVA's president in 1922 see Fields, Fred Stone, 212-16.

18. By-laws of the National Vaudeville Artists, Inc. (1916), copy. FTC vs. VMPA, docket 128, box 73, NARA-CP; Bernheim, "The Facts of Vaudeville," Equity (March 1924):39; VN, March 16, 1923, 6; Variety, December 22, 1916, 5. See articles of incorporation, box 73, NARA-CP; NYC, June 3, 1916, 11.

19. Laurie, Vaudeville, 316. See First Report of the Joint Complaint Bureau, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, box 73, NARA-CP; Allen, Much Ado About Me, 248; Billboard, May 6, 1916, 6, 78, May 13, 1916, 6, 15, June 24, 1916, September 7, 1918, 6, 58, December 28, 1918, 6, 59, May 3, 1919, 6, 73, July 19, 1919, 6, 11; NYMT, July 13, 1919, sec. 6, 2; NYS, February 2, 1921, 15; Variety, May 12, 1916, 5, May 19, 1916, 17, June 16, 1917, 3, 15, December 27, 1918, 9, April 25, 1919, 3, May 30, 1919, 9, July 11, 1919, 6, 22-23, July 7, 1926, 27, May 4, 1927, 1, 14, June 27, 1928, 37.

p. 219 "The managers bragged"
Bernheim, "The Facts of Vaudeville," Equity (February 1924):20-21.

20. Walter C. Kelly, Of Me I Sing: An Informal Autobiography (New York: Dial Press, 1953), 212. See NVA advertisement and Henry Chesterfield to members, April 12, 1917, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, box 73, NARA-CP; Bernheim, "The Facts of Vaudeville," Equity (February 1924):46; "Memoirs," p. 15, file 2a, Darling Papers, NN-L-BRTC; NYC, August 26, 1916, 4, April 28, 1920, 20; NYS, April 28, 1920, 5, May 12, 1920, 5; Variety, August 11, 1916, 17.

21. Edward F. Albee to the Managers of All Vaudeville Theaters, January 24, 1921, vaudeville file, NNSA. According to the NYC, the NVA had 1,500 members by October 1, 1916; 3,750, by January 1917; and by May 1917, 6,450 members (see NYC, January 17, 1917, 7, May 9, 1917, 3). Variety, August 24, 1917, 3, and NYMT, May 13, 1917, 2, reported about 7,000 members. See also Billboard, March 7, 1917, 6, May 12, 1917, 8; Variety, January 5, 1917, 8; and the list of members published in Variety, February 23, 1917, 30-31, that totals about 2,200.

22. VN, January 28, 1921, 4. See Neal Gabler, Winchell: Gossip, Power and The Culture of Celebrity (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1994), 35-51; George Jessel, The World I Lived In (Chicago: Regnery, 1975), 6-8, 12-13.

23. Billboard, December 24, 1921. 9, December 16, 1922, 11.

p. 220 "There was a close alliance"
See Members of Vaudeville Managers Protective Association and List of Circuits, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, box 73, NARA-CP; Snyder, Voice of the City, 76; Bernheim, "The Facts of Vaudeville," Equity (September 1923):12; Billboard, March 11, 1916, 3, 63, March 25, 1916, 3, 63, April 1, 1916, 3, 70, April 8, 1916, 6, 63; April 15, 1916, 3, 62, April 22, 1916, 3, 67; NYC, January 22, 1916, 7, February 12, 1916, 8, March 4, 1916, 6, March 18, 1916, 8, March 25, 1916, 6, April 1, 1916, 6, 32; June 3, 1916, 8; NYDM, June 10, 1916, 19; Variety, March 3, 1916, 5, March 10, 1916, 4, March 31, 1916, 16, December 28, 1917, 11, February 7, 1919, 27, February 14, 1919, 25, June 20, 1919, 29, February 20, 1920, 5, March 5, 1920, 24, March 12, 1920, 27; June 2, 1926, 22.

24. Variety, June 23, 1916, 15, September 22, 1916, 22. See Billboard, March 18, 1916, 32, 185, July 22, 1916, 6; Variety, March 24, 1916, 19, March 31, 1916, 16, June 16, 1916, 8, June 23, 1916, 14 -15, June 30, 1916, 14-15, August 11, 1916, 14.

25. Letter from Ernest Carr, chief deputy organizer, WRAU, to Mr. Moss, September 15, 1916, FTC. vs. VMPA, docket #128, box 73; Memorandum of Agreement, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, box 73; "Brief in Behalf of All Respondents," p. 23, NARA-CP. See Variety, May 2, 1919, 39, May 9, 1919, 29.

26. Variety, December 22, 1916, 5, September 29, 1916, 12; San Francisco Dramatic Review, December 30, 1911, vol. 5, OPNR-Cu-B. See Variety, April 14, 1916, 14, December 8, 1916, 3.

27. Variety, June 20, 1919, 29.

16. Mountford Strikes Back

p. 224 "What the WRAU needed"
Variety, July 4, 1919, 28-29.

p. 224 "The action of the IATSE"
Kibler, "Female Varieties," 226-28.

p. 224 "The WRAU ordered its members"
Letters of Cora Youngblood Corson to James V. McClintic, April 2 and April 21, 1920 with enclosures, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, auxiliary box 74, NARA-CP; Kibler, Rank Ladies, 190-92; Kibler, "Female Varieties." 244-52; Variety, August 25, 1916, 5, September 1, 1916, 5.

pp. 224-25 "In response to the strike"
Variety, September 8, 1916, 3.

1. State Board of Arbitration and Conciliation opinion filed September 26, 1916, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, box 73, NARA-CP. See "Stay Away" poster, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, box 73; "Brief in Behalf of All Respondents," pp. 18, 20, NARA-CP; Kibler, "Female Varieties," 248; NYDM, September 16, 1916, 17; Variety, August 4, 1916, 3, August 11, 1916, 5, 15, August 25, 1916, 5, August 25, 1916, 5, September 1, 1916, 5, September 8, 1916, 3, September 15, 1916, 3, September 22, 1916, 3, September 29, 1916, October 6, 1916, 8, October 13, 1916, 6, February 14, 1919, 32, 34, June 6, 1919, 31, October 24, 1919, 24.

2. Variety, June 6, 1919, 30; Kelly, Of Me I Sing, 211. See
Snyder, Voice of the City, 77; Laurie, Vaudeville, 314; Billboard, January 26, 1924, 13, June 8, 1918, 6, 71; NYC, June 5, 1918, 3, 7; NYT, December 11, 1916, 4, December 18, 1916, 11, December 28, 1916, 11; Variety, November 10, 1916, 12, June 20, 1919, 32, July 4, 1919, 28.

pp. 225-26 "As rumors of an impending strike"
Snyder, Voice of the City, 78; NYC, October 18, 1916, 6, November 1, 1916, 3, November 15, 1916, 27; San Francisco Bulletin, December 11, 1916, vol. 10, OPNR-Cu-B; Variety, November 3, 1916, 4, 12, November 17, 1916, 5, December 8, 1916, 8, August 31, 1917, 3.

3. NYC, December 10, 1919, 14; Variety, April 20, 1917, 7, September 6, 1918, 6. See letter of Pat Casey to manager, January 3, 1918, and report to be sent to the VMPA, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, box 73, NARA-CP; Billboard, March 22, 1919, 194; Variety, May 16, 1919, 27. The blacklist ruined the careers of numerous vaudevillians who supported the strike and refused to join the NVA. They were forced to play the small time or walk the streets looking for work. Suffering from depression, some never recovered from being ostracized. The popular monologuist Charlie Case, for example, killed himself in 1916 with a revolver in his room at the Palace Hotel on West Forty-fifth Street. See EV, 49; Kelly, Of Me I Sing, 211-12; Laurie, Vaudeville, 175.

4. Laurie, Vaudeville, 314. See Artist's Contract, Gus Sun Booking Exchange Co., FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, box 73, NARA-CP; Snyder, Voice of the City, 77; Billboard, August 4, 1917, 6, 66; NYC, February 5, 1919, 30; NYMT, October 21, 1917, copy, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, box 73; Variety, December 22, 1916, 138; February 23, 1917, 5, March 9, 1917, 6, May 4, 1917, 3, July 20, 1917, 6, February 7, 1919, 27, 31, June 20, 1919, 29, July 18, 1919, 10, August 1, 1919, 28.

pp. 226-27 "Mountford secretly made plans"
Telegram to M. Slotkin, December 9, 1916, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, box 73, NARA-CP; letter of Pat Casey to J. Quigley, February 8, 1917 with enclosure list, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, box 73, NARA-CP; NYC, November 1, 1916, 3; Player, February 9, 1917, 3-4, 6, 8, February 16, 1917, 3, 5, 8, February 23, 1917, 3, 5, 6, 9, March 9, 1917, 3; Variety, Daily Bulletin, #3, December 12, 1916, 1, December 15, 1916, 3, 5; Variety, January 5, 1917, 7, May 16, 1919, 27.

p. 227 "The strike soon spread"
Player, February 9, 1917, 7, February 16, 1917, 9, February 23, 1917, 3; Variety, June 20, 1919, 33.

p. 227 "In early February"
"Brief in Behalf of All Respondents," p. 19, NARA-CP; Billboard, February 17, 1917, 6, 67; NYC, February 7, 1917, 3, February 14, 1917, 3, March 14, 1917, 4; Variety, March 10, 1917, 4, March 23, 1917, 7; July 6, 1917, 6.

5. Letter of Pat Casey to M. Slotkin, March 12, 1917, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, box 73, NARA-CP. See letter of Pat Casey to M. Slotkin, June 21, 1917, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, box 73, NARA-CP; Billboard, March 17, 1917, 8; NYC, March 14, 1917, 3, 4, 10; NYMT, March 10, 1917 12; Player, March 16, 1917, 3, 5, March 23, 1917, 3.

6. NYMT, March 11, 1917, 5. See Revised List of Acts to Date, March 14, 1917, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, box 73, NARA-CP; Louis Pincus to Magee and Kerry, February 8, 1917, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, box 73, NARA-CP.

7. NYT, March 14, 1917, 5, 10. See NYC, March 23, 1917, 23; NYT, March 15, 1917, 5; Player, March 23, 1917, 7, March 30, 1917, 9.

8. NYC, July 4, 1917, 3. See Temporary Injunction Order by F. K. Pendleton, Justice of the Supreme Court of New York, April 6, 1917, copy, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, box 73, NARA-CP.

9. Player, April 13, 1917, 4, 7; Billboard, December 29, 1917, 6. See NYC, April 18, 1917, 3; NYT, April 7, 1917, 11, April 12, 1917, 9.

10. Variety, November 28, 1919, 31. See Gilbert, American Vaudeville, 388-92; NYT, March 9, 1917, 16; Player, April 13, 1917, 3.

11. Variety, November 14, 1919, 28. See Francisco, "The White Rats Versus the Czars of Vaudeville," 142-45.

12. Variety, April 20, 1917, 9, December 12, 1917, 11; NYC, December 10, 1919, 24. See letter Pat Casey to M. Slotkin, April 11, 1917, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, box 73, NARA-CP; "Brief in Behalf of All Respondents," p. 60, NARA-CP; Stoddart, Lord Broadway, 235-41; Variety, December 15, 1916, 9, December 22, 1916, 9, 20, December 29, 1916, 9, December 31, 1920, 11.

pp. 230-31 "Mountford also failed"
Letter of Harry Mountford to the Federal Trade Commission, received March 31, 1919, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, auxiliary box 73, NARA-CP. See Petition of Goldie Pemberton, Supreme Court of the State of New York, May 2, 1917, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, box 73; Copy of Official Brief Financial Investigation White Rats Actors Union, started May, 1917, concluded May, 1919, series 7, box 7, folder 160, AAAA-NN; Billboard, February 16, 1918, 6, 15, December 14, 1918, 3, 57; NYC, May 9, 1917, 3, December 4, 1918, 3, December 3, 1919, 3, January 14, 1920, 6; NYMT, May 12, 1917, 12; NYS, May 28, 1919, 7, January 21, 1920, 5; Variety, November 2, 1917, 6, November 9, 1917, 7, January 18, 1918, 6, February 8, 1918, 6, February 15, 1918, 6, 50, March 22, 1918, 6., 15, June 14, 1918, 6, 19, December 6, 1918, 7, 22, January 17, 1919, 6, 28, February 7, 1919, 27; May 9, 1919, 34, May 23, 1919, 3, 25.

p. 231 "As a result of the strike"
Letter of James William Fitzpatrick and Harry Mountford to WRAU members, October 1, 1917, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, box 73, NARA-CP; Billboard, April 7, 1917, 6. 78; NYC, July 4, 1917, 3; Variety, April 13, 1917, 3, 6, 7, 9.

13. Variety, April 27, 1917, 6; NYMT. March 30, 1919, sec. 1, 5. See Billboard, April 21, 1917, 6, 8, April 28, 1917, 6, 9, June 30, 1917, 3, 11; NYC, April 18, 1917, 3, April 25, 1917, 3; NYMT, April 26, 1917, 1.

14. Variety, November 20, 1918, 3. See Joe. E. Brown, as told to Ralph Hancock, Laughter Is a Wonderful Thing (New York: Barnes, 1956). 139; Green and Laurie, Show Biz, 96-97; Bernheim, "Facts of Vaudeville," Equity (March 1924):19, 37; "The New N.V.A. Club House," Theatre (September 1919):126; Billboard, September 15, 1917, 5, 87, June 7, 1919, 10-13, December 6, 1919, 20; NYC, May 2, 1917, 5, August 22, 1917, 3, 5, February 12, 1919, 7; NYMT, September 9, 1917, 1, 5; NYS, November 27, 1918, 7, April 8, 1919, 1, 4; NYT, March 28, 1919, 11; Variety, September 7, 1917, 9, March 28, 1919, 5, April 4, 1919, 6, July 11, 1919, 36.

15. NYT, March 12, 1930, 32. See will of A. Paul Keith, enclosure, letter of William Klein to Lee Schubert, August 25, 1921, folder 8, box 32, NNSA; Billboard, January 4, 1919, 6; NYC, November 6, 1918, 6, 32, January 1, 1919, 6; NYMT, January 1, 1919, 10. January 5, 1919. sec. 4, 3; NYS, November 13, 1918, 9; NYT, September 30, 1920, 9, November 10, 1920, 13; Variety, January 3, 1919, 5.

16. "Memoirs," p. 13, file 2a, Darling Papers, NN-L-BRTC. See Theatres Booking in the B. F. Keith Vaudeville Exchange, January 28, 1919, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, box 73, NARA-CP; NYC, February 15, 1913, 12, November 29, 1913, 3; Variety, February 21, 1919, 37.

p. 232 "Since the WRAU was now a weak organization"
Letter of Harry Mountford to Francis Wilson, president, Actors' Equity Association, April 22, 1919; letter of Francis Wilson to Harry Mountford, April 29, 1919; Actors' Equity Association charter application to the Executive Council of the American Federation of Labor, June 10, 1919; letter of Harry Mountford to Frank Morrison, secretary, American Federation of Labor, June 23, 1919; letter of Frank Morrison to Francis Wilson, July 2, 1919; telegram, James William Fitzpatrick and Harry Mountford to Frank Morrison, July 18, 1919; letter of Frank Gillmore, executive secretary, Actors' Equity Association to Frank Morrison, July 24, 1919; letter of Harry Mountford to Frank Morrison, July 29, 1919, series 7, box 7, folder 160, AAAA-NN; Harding, Revolt of the Actors, 30-36, 65-67; http:/www.actorsequity.org/AboutEquity/timeline/timeline 1919.html (accessed March 10, 2005); Billboard, July 26, 1919, 5, 10; NYC, July 23, 1919, 3, 32; Variety, November 30, 1917, 6, April 11, 1919, 3, July 25, 1919, 6, 16; August 1, 1919, 3.

pp. 232-33 "Fearing that Equity"
CGAT, 24, 384; Harding, Revolt of the Actors, 66-67, 75-77.

17. Billboard, May 12, 1923, 12, 13. See Bernheim, Business of the Theatre; "Facts of Vaudeville," Equity (1923-24); Billboard, May 5, 1923, 7, 12, 108, May 19, 1923, 5, 123, May 26, 1923, 13, June 2, 1923, 12, May 31, 1924. 10.

18. Variety, May 17, 1918, 5, April 9, 1920, 21. See Complaint in the Matter of the Alleged Violation of Section 5 of an Act of Congress Approved September 26, 1914, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, box 69, NARA-CP; letter of Harry Mountford to John Walsh, July 6, 1918, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, auxiliary box 73, NARA-CP; Federal Trade Commission Decisions: Findings and Orders of the Federal Trade Commission, July 1, 1919, to June 30, 1920, vol. II (Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1920), 464; Billboard, May 18, 1918, 3, 61, February 8, 1919, 3, 8; NYC, February 12, 1919, 3; NYT, May 15, 1918, 11, February 6, 1919, 6; Variety, May 17, 1918, 5,, 22, February 7, 1919, 28; July 4, 1919, 26.

pp. 234-35 "The case revolved around a key question"
Brief of Attorney for the Federal Trade Commission, pp. 29-30, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, box 69; NARA-CP; EV, 335; Gilbert, American Vaudeville, 230, 247--48; Grau, Business Man in the Amusement World, 94--95; H. B. Marinelli clippings collection, envelope #1315, NN-RLC; "H. B. Marinelli, Ltd. v. United Booking Offices of America," Federal Reporter, vol. 227 (December 1915-January 1916) (St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1916):165-71; Laurie, Vaudeville, 37, 133; Leavitt, Fifty Years in Theatrical Management, 269-70; Schubert-Marinelli correspondence in General Correspondence file #2990, NNSA; Billboard, September 6, 1913, 11, November 7, 1914, 5, January 26, 1924, 15; LAT, November 12, 1913, pt. 1, 5; NYC, August 9, 1913, 4, August 30, 1913, 13, November 22, 1913, 1, January 24, 1914, 3, November 7, 1914, 3; NYDM, November 4, 1911, 20, November 11, 1913, 23, August 6, 1913, 14, August 27, 1913, 15, September 7, 1913, sec. 4, pt. 2, 2; NYMT, July 29, 1913, 4, November 12, 1913, 3, January 17, 1914, 1; NYT, January 8, 1924; Player, November 14, 1913, 1; Variety, July 21, 1906, 24, June 27, 1913, 4, August 8, 1913, 3, August 29, 1913, 40, January 10, 1924, 7, January 17, 1924, 5; May 19, 1926, 27.

p. 235 "During the FTC hearing"
"Brief in Behalf of All Respondents"; Motion to Dismiss Complaint and for a Ruling of the Commission on Objections Taken to Testimony and on Motion to Strike Out Testimony, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, box 69, NARA-CP; Billboard, February 15, 1919, 3, 10; Variety, February 7, 1919, 29-30.

p. 235 "The hearings, which lasted"
NYC, February 5, 1919, 3, 30; NYT, February 6, 1919, 6; Variety, February 7, 1919, 30.

19. "Brief in Behalf of All Respondents," FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, box 69, p. 59, NARA-CP. See Brief of Attorneys for the Federal Trade Commission, p. 35, FTC vs. VMPA, docket #128, box 69, NARA-CP; Billboard, November 8, 1919, 38; NYC, December 10, 1919, 31.

p. 236 "Nearly two years"
Stoddart, Lord Broadway, 261; Billboard, April 10, 1920, 91; NYS, April 7, 1920, 5, April 14, 1920, 5; Variety, April 2, 1920, 3, 83, April 9, 1920, 5, 21; VO 4:June 7, 1950.

20. Variety, January 24, 1924, 30-31. See "Cases Argued and Determined in the United States Supreme Court, 1926," Supreme Court Reporter, vol. 47 (St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1928):97; "Cases Argued and Determined in the Circuit Court of Appeals and District Courts of the United States and the Court of Appeals of the District of Columbia," Federal Reporter, vol. 12 (St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1926):341-45; Billboard, January 16, 1921, 8, October 7, 1922, 12, October 28, 1922, 13, November 4, 1922, 5, 107, November 11, 1922, 13, January 6, 1923, 12, April 7, 1923, 5, 13, 18, May 12, 1923, 12; May 26, 1923, 7, 15, June 2, 1923, 12, 13, January 5, 1924, 13, January 26, 1924, 13, 15, 18, 120, 123, February 9, 1924, 13,15, November 7, 1925, 12, February 2, 1926, 13-15, 18, March 13, 1926, 12, April 17, 1926, 13, October 23, 1926, 10, October 30, 1926, 10; NYC, November 1, 1922, 1, May 23, 1923, 3, 30; NYS, November 4, 1922, 5; NYT, November 1, 1922, 19, January 23, 1923, 4, May 22, 1923, 10, November 23, 1926, 27; Variety, December 17, 1920, 6, January 27, 1922, 3; October 13, 1922, 3, October 20, 1922, 4 October 27, 1922, 4, 10, November 3, 1922, 4-5, 11, 22-25, January 25, 1923, 5, May 24, 1923, 5, 10, January 10, 1924, 4, January 17, 1924, 1, 5-6, 33, January 24, 1924, 4-5, 30-31, 43-44, January 31, 1924, 4, 44-5, 27, 38, 41, March 24, 1926, 4, April 14, 1926, 4, 6, May 5, 1924, 27; VO 4: May 24, 1950.